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comm.Parameters.AddWithValue("@Name", name) |> ignore use adapter = new SqlDataAdapter(comm) let table = new DataTable() adapter.Fill(table) |> ignore table We can execute the stored procedure as follows to find the employees with the last name Smith: > for row in (GetEmployeesByLastName "Smith").Rows do printfn "row = %O, %O" (row.Item("FirstName")) (row.Item("LastName"));; row = Joe, Smith row = Eve, Smith val it : unit = ()

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If you turn off AUTOTRACE, SQL*Plus will terminate this additional session and you will no longer see it in V$SESSION. Why does SQL*Plus do this trick The answer is fairly straightforward. SQL*Plus does it for the same reason that we used a second SQL*Plus session in 4, Memory Structures, to monitor memory and temporary space usage: if we had used a single session to monitor memory usage, we would have been using memory to do the monitoring. By observing the statistics in a single session, we necessarily would change those statistics. If SQL*Plus used a single session to report on the number of I/Os performed, how many bytes were transferred over the network, and how many sorts happened, then the queries used to find these details would be adding to the statistics themselves. They could be sorting, performing I/O, transferring data over the network (one would assume they would!), and so on. Hence, we need to use another session to measure correctly. So far, we ve seen a connection with one or two sessions. Now we d like to use SQL*Plus to see a connection with no session. That one is pretty easy. In the same SQL*Plus window used in the previous example, simply type the misleadingly named command, DISCONNECT: ops$tkyte%ORA11GR2> disconnect Disconnected from Oracle Database 11g Enterprise Edition Release - Production With the Partitioning, OLAP, Data Mining and Real Application Testing options Technically, that command should be called DESTROY_ALL_SESSIONS instead of DISCONNECT, since we haven t really disconnected physically.

Note The true disconnect in SQL*Plus is exit, as you would have to exit to completely destroy the connection.

You saw in 14 how data tables can be visualized in web applications. The return value of GetEmployeesByLastName from the previous section is a DataTable. These objects can also be directly bound to a Windows Forms data grid, a visual data control that supports the DataSource property and that can display data in a tabular format. Windows Forms controls were discussed in 11. open System.Windows.Forms let emps = GetEmployeesByLastName "Smith" let grid = new DataGrid(Width=300, Height=200, DataSource=emps) let form = new Form(Visible=true, TopMost=true) form.Controls.Add(grid) Figure 15-1 shows what you will see when you run this code.

We have, however, closed all of our sessions. If we open another session using some other user account and query (replacing OPS$TKYTE with your account name, of course): $ sqlplus / as sysdba SQL*Plus: Release Production on Wed May 12 14:08:16 2010 Connected to: Oracle Database 11g Enterprise Edition Release - Production With the Partitioning, OLAP, Data Mining and Real Application Testing options sys%ORA11GR2> select * from v$session where username = 'OPS$TKYTE'; no rows selected

We can see that we have no sessions but we still have a process, a physical connection (using the previous ADDR value): sys%ORA11GR2> select username, program 2 from v$process 3 where addr = hextoraw( '32BC2B84' ); USERNAME PROGRAM --------------- -----------------------------------------------tkyte oracle@localhost.localdomain (TNS V1-V3) So, here we have a connection with no sessions associated with it. We can use the also misnamed SQL*Plus CONNECT command to create a new session in this existing process (the CONNECT command might be better named CREATE_SESSION). Using the SQL*Plus instance we disconnected in, we ll execute the following: ops$tkyte%ORA11GR2> connect / Connected. ops$tkyte%ORA11GR2> select username, sid, serial#, server, paddr, status 2 from v$session 3 where username = USER; USERNAME SID SERIAL# SERVER PADDR STATUS --------- ---------- ---------- --------- -------- -------OPS$TKYTE 37 404 DEDICATED 32BC2B84 ACTIVE Notice that we have the same PADDR as before, so we are using the same physical connection, but we have (potentially) a different SID. I say potentially because we could get assigned the same SID it just depends on whether other people logged in while we were logged out and whether the original SID we had was available.

Stored procedures can also perform deletions or updates (executed via the ExecuteNonQuery() method of the command object) or return data through out parameters. These can be defined using the OUTPUT keyword after a single parameter definition in the stored procedure. When calling the stored procedure, the out parameter has to have its direction set to ParameterDirection.Output, and after executing the stored procedure, its return value can be read using the Value property of the given parameter.

Note On Windows or other thread-based operating systems, you might see different results the process

address may change since you are connected to a threaded process, not just a single purpose process as you would on Unix.

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